Hormones work at the central nervous system's level in order to regulate the release of chemicals known as neurotransmitters and directly influence the way we feel emotionally. Let's find out which ones are the main ones and what their functions are.
Estrogens and progesterone: In addition to the various functions they perform in our sexual and developmental health, they act as neuromodulators with antidepressant effects when their levels are normal and when they are not normal they can cause the opposite effect. They are produced by the ovaries and intervene in the menstrual cycle, giving feminine characteristics, fertility and reproduction, and favors metabolism in the bones, muscles, and skin. When these hormones decrease there is a chance that these symptoms may appear: Vasomotor symptoms, hot flashes, sweating, sleep disorders, insomnia, cognitive disorders, loss of the ability to solve problems, decreased libido, changes in character, irritability, depression, crying easily, dry mucous membranes, vagina, eyes, etc.
Melatonin: It is a natural hormone produced by the brain throughout the night to help regulate sleep. When the production of melatonin drops it may be the source of sleep disorders, but also of aging and inflammatory diseases. After age 35, as with other hormones, the level of melatonin decreases naturally with age, although some medications such as anti-inflamatories , hypnotics, or anxiolytics may also cause a lower production.
Cortisol: It is the hormone that mediates the states of stress and anxiety. The key is in the amount that is released, and in the balance. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone that is synthesized from cholesterol in glands located in our kidneys. Through it we get enough energy to get up in the morning, to start out on our daily tasks and activities, and it also helps us to react to situations that our brain interprets as dangerous. The problem with this type of hormone is when it constantly secretes, then the mind only thinks that we are surrounded by problems, life becomes too demanding and everything seems to get out of hand producing stress.
Endorphins: They are responsible for regulating pleasure, euphoria, happiness and relief from pain. They are our internal morphine, which, like opiates, once we've experienced the pleasure of its endogenous secretion, makes us dependent on them. The rest of our life becomes no more than a continuous search for it. But what substances are called endorphins? Actually any of those belonging to a group of opiate proteins with analgesic 1 and pleasure-regulating properties that are naturally found in the brain. During sexual intercourse, for example, a large concentration of endorphins is released. This hormone will send a signal of satisfaction to our brain. We can also get this type of reaction while being active. For example, doing sports. After a while of practicing an activity you may begin to notice how your body and mind consider sport as something rewarding and that you feel good after having practiced any sport.
Thyroid hormones: Thyroid disease can affect your mood and cause anxiety or depression. In general, the more severe the thyroid disease, the more intense the changes in mood. An overactive thyroid can cause nervousness, anxiety and irritability, irregular heartbeat, that is accelerated and strong. Heat intolerance and a feeling of suffocation. On the other hand, hypothyroidism can cause fatigue, reluctance, apathy, and depression. As the disorder progresses it can cause a decrease in intellectual performance and learning ability.